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Types of Evidence


Performance evidence is needed for each element of competence. Generally the main source of evidence will be the activities carried out in the workplace. This will include the following:

· Observations by assessors
· Work outputs (products)

Supplementary evidence may also be used to support evidence of performance or provide evidence of knowledge eg answers to questions posed by an assessor.

Observations by assessors (this may also include questioning)Assessors will observe candidates in their workplace whilst they are carrying out activities which are likely to match the NVQ standards. These observations will be recorded and referenced to the appropriate NVQ standards. In addition, assessors may want to ask questions regarding the activity being undertaken. Questioning can help prove that candidates have the necessary knowledge as defined in the standards under the heading Element Knowledge Requirements or Knowledge Requirements (ENTO units).

Work outputs

Candidates can use products of their work such as documents. Questioning can again be used to help make accurate assessment decisions regarding the validity and authenticity of the work output.

Assessors should advise candidates as to the best way to generate the evidence needed. This will vary depending on circumstances, but here are some sources that may be used:

· witness testimonies
· questioning - oral and written
· 'professional' discussions
· case histories
· personal statements
· work based projects

Witness testimonies

It will probably happen that assessors are not present just at that moment when candidates are using their skills at work. In these cases it is sometimes appropriate to make use of witness testimonies, that is, to ask a person who was present to testify to the candidate's competence.
Such testimonies could be made verbally to assessors, or could be written in a short note. A list of witness names needs to be produced with contact numbers so that assessors, internal verifiers and external verifiers can speak to them if required.
It should be remembered that witnesses can only comment on the performance of the candidate in their work role, they are not able to comment on the performance of the candidate in relation to the requirements of the standards - this is the responsibility of the assessor.

Questioning - oral and written

Assessors will undoubtedly wish to question candidates in order to:

· obtain information on the nature and purpose of work outputs, and to
· fill in gaps in evidence, which are likely to relate to aspects of the knowledge.
While this questioning will usually be verbal and impromptu, it may also take the form of preset written questions and answers. A record of candidate responses to assessors' questions is considered good practice and should be provided as evidence. Questioning should complement and support evidence, not displace it.

Professional discussions

A series of focused discussions between assessor and candidate may provide a source of evidence of a candidate's competence. Each discussion is focused around a case history or histories where the candidate describes what they did to achieve the national standards. Professional discussions may be recorded on tape, with key extracts transcribed and referenced against the standards.

Case histories

In addition to their use in professional discussions, case histories can also be written pieces of evidence. This usually involves the candidate writing about a specific incident which they feel demonstrates skills and knowledge which matches the NVQ standards. Case histories are often supported by work output evidence and countersigned by a witness.

Personal statements

Personal statements, activity logs or diaries may be used to generate evidence. Such evidence should be countersigned at regular intervals by assessors and/or work based witnesses.

Work based projects

Where the candidate's work role does not usually include a particular competence, a work based project or task may be agreed and used to produce evidence.


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